Hasan (R.A) and Husain(R.A) were the grandsons of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and very dearest to Prophet (PBUH).
According to Sahi Hadith:
Hasanand Husain (R.A) are the leaders of youth in Paradise. (Jami` at-Tirmidhi: Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3768).
Their father Ali bin Abi Talib (R.A) was the fourth rightful Caliph of Islam and one of the most beloved companion of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Their mother Fatima Az-Zahrah (R.A) was the youngest daughter of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and one of the most respected women in Islam.
According to Sahi Hadith Fatima Az-Zahrah (R.A) is the mistress (Sayyidat) of women in Paradise except Mariyam (A.S). (Jami` at-Tirmidhi: Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3873)
Al-Hasan bin Ali bin abiTalib (R.A)
Hasan (R.A) was born in mid of Ramadan of the third year of Hijrah. Some sources claim that he was born in the month of Sha’ban and other sources suggested that he was born in fourth or fifth year A.H.
The name “Hasan” was suggested by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Narrated by Ali bin Abi Talib (R.A):
“When Hasan was born, I named him “Harb” (war). When Allah’s messenger (PBUH) came, he said: “Let me see my son. What name have you given him?” “Harb.” I responded. He said, “Rather. He should bear [the name] Hasan.” (Al-Bukhari in Al-Adab 286)
This is how the name “Harb” (war) was changed into “Hasan” (to be beautiful) and history shows us that how Hasan (R.A) actually changed the violence and conflicts into peace and harmony. When he was born the Prophet (PBUH) lifted him up in his arms and carried him on his front and on his chest.
Hadiths on the personality of Al-Hasan bin Ali (R.A)
Following are some hadiths mentioning the greatness personality of Hasan (R.A) and predictions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) concerning him.
Al-Bara bin Azib narrated:
“I saw the Prophet (PBUH) carrying Hasan (R.A) on his shoulder and saying, “O Allah! I love him, so please love him.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 3749)
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that:
“The Prophet (PBUH) said to Hasan (R.A): “O Allah, I love him, so love him and love those who love him.” He said: “And he hugged him to his chest.” (Sunan Ibn Majah: Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 142 / Sahih Muslim 2421)
Narrated Abu Bakrah (R.A):”
I heard the Prophet (PBUH) talking at the pulpit while Al-Hasan was sitting beside him, and he (i.e. the Prophet) was once looking at the people and at another time Al-Hasan, and saying, “This son of mine is a Saiyid (i.e. chief) and perhaps Allah will bring about an agreement between two sects of the Muslims through him.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 3746)
The declaration Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) of saying him a Saiyid (chief) has brought great pride and nobility in his character and also makes him very responsible. The Prophet’s (PBUH) prediction become reality when Hasan (R.A) abdicated his right to the caliphate in order to prevent bloodshed and conflicts between two Muslims groups. The incident was took place in the 41 A.H. His Caliphate lasted only for six months and later known as the year of “Jamaa’ah”. This is what Muhammad (PBUH) predicted when he said “Perhaps Allah will reconcile between two great factions of the Muslims.
Ibn Hajar (R.A) said:
This hadith contains one of the Prophetic predictions and an indication of the excellence of Al-Hasan Bin Ali for he abandoned power not due to any inadequacy, lowliness or any shortcoming whatsoever, but due to a desire for what is with Allah when he saw that preventing bloodshed of Muslims. Adhering to the dictates of the religion and reconciling the Ummah were far more important than any personal aggrandizement. (Fath Al-Baree 13/66)
On the authority of Said Al-Maqbiree who narrated:
“We were with Abu Hurayrah (R.A) when Al-Hasan Bin Abi Talib came. He said the greetings of Salaam and we responded. Meanwhile Abu Hurayrah (R.A) was unaware of his presence. So we said: “O Aba Hurayrah, this is Al-Hasan Bin Ali who has said the greetings of Salaam to us. He said: “Peace be upon you O my master,” and then said: “He is indeed a chief.” (Al-Mustadrak: Book of Ma’rifatu As-Sahaabah /169)
Hasan (R.A) had the most resemblance with Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in physique. According to Hadith in Al-Bukhari narrated by Anas Bin Maalik (R.A) said:
“There was on one who resembled the Prophet (PBUH) in character more than Al-Hasan Bin Ali. (Sahih al-Bukhari 3752)
Another Hadith in Al-Bukhari narrated by Uqbah Bin Al-Haarith (R.A) who said:
I saw Abu Bakr (R.A) carrying Al-Hasan while saying: “May my father be sacrificed for you; you resemble the Prophet and not Ali,” while Ali was laughing. (Sahih al-Bukhari 3750)
Al-Husain bin Ali bin abi Talib (R.A)
Al-Husain bin Ali Bin Abi Talib was born in the 4th year of Hijrah but other sources claimed different dates of his birth. Husain (R.A) embraced Shahadah for Islam in month of Muharram 61 A.H. on the day of Ashoora at Karbala in Iraq, may he find peace and pleasure.
Hadith regarding Husain (R.A)
It was narrated from Sa’eed bin Abu Rashid that Ya’la bin Murrah told them that:
“They had gone out with the Prophet to a meal to which they had been invited, and Husain was there playing in the street. The Prophet came in front of the people and stretched out his hands, and the child started to run here and there. The Prophet made him laugh until he caught him, then he put one hand under his chin and the other on his head and kissed him, and said, “Husain is part of me and I am part of him. May Allah love those who love Husain. Husain is a tribe among tribes.” (Sunan Ibn Majah: Book 1, Hadith 149)
This hadith clearly define the excellence and greatness of Hasan (R.A) personality and shows the love of Prophet (PBUH) for him. It is already revealed on Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that what will occur between Husain (R.A) and the people. He (PBUH) also specifically addressed and warn people about going against him on war and emphasized them to love him.
But the history was already written and one of the saddest incident of mankind happened in Karbala. The second leader of youth of Paradise embraced Shahada and he saved Islam.
Al-Bukhari added a hadith narrated by Anas Bin Maalik (R.A) who said:
“The head of Al-Husain (R.A) was brought in a basin to Ubaidullah Bin Ziyaad. And then Ibn Ziyad began to play with stick with the nose and mouth of Al-Hasain’s head and saying something about his handsome features.” Anas then said (to him), “Al-Husain resemble the Propher (PBUH) more than the others did.” Anas added, “His (R.A) hair was dyed with Wasmah. (Sahih al-Bukhari 3748)
In other Hadith also narrated by Anas (R.A) said:
When Al-Husain’s (R.A) head was brought to Ubaidullah Bin Ziyaad and he began to scratch his two incisors with a stick and saying: “I used to consider that he was handsome.” Then Anas said: “By Allah, you are vile! I saw that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) kissed where your stick has touched.” Then he (Ibn Ziyaad) recoiled. (Fadaa’il As-Sahaabah 2/98, no. 1397)
These Hadiths indicate that both Hasan (R.A) and Husain (R.A) resemble the most with Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) than any other. In another Hadith in At-TirmadhiNarrated by Ali who said:
“Al-Hasan is greater in resemblance to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) with regards to what is between the chest and the head, and Al-Husain is greater in resemblance to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) with regards to what is below that.” (Jami` at-Tirmidhi: Book 49, Hadith 4148)
Hadiths mentioned both Hasan (R.A) and Husain (R.A)
Imam Bukhari (R.A) added a hadith narrated by Ibn-Umar (R.A)that:
A man from Iraq asked him concerning the ruling of a Muhrim (a pilgrim in Ihram) killing a fly. He, Ibn Umar (R.A), said: “The people of Iraq are asking about the killing of a fly while they have killed the son of the daughter of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) while the Prophet (PBUH) has said: “They (i.e. Hasan and Husain) are my two sweet basils in this world.” (Sahih al-Bukhari 3753)
Ibn Hajar (R.A) said: The meaning of this is that they are from what Allah has honored me with and bestowed upon me, because children exude scent as if they are from the aggregate of sweet basils. (Fath Al-Baree 10/427)
It is narrated by Abu Hurairah that The Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever loves Hasan and Husain, loves me; and whoever hates them, hates me.” (Sunan Ibn Majah: Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 143)
Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (R.A) narrated thatAllah’s Messenger (PBUH) said: “Al-Hasan and Al-Husain are the leaders of the youth of Paradise.” (Jami` at-Tirmidhi: Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 143)
It was narrated from Ibn Buraidah thatHis father said:
“While the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was on the minbar, Al-Hasan and Al-Husain came,wearing red shirts, walking and stumbling. He came down and picked them up, then said: ‘Allah has spoken the truth: Your wealth and your children are only a trial.’ I saw these two walking and stumbling in their shirts, and I could not be patient until I went down and picked them up.'” (Sunan an-Nasa’i: 1585)
These Hadiths show us that how much Prophet of Allah (PBUH) loved both Hasan (R.A) and Husain (R.A) and specifically told Ummah to love them too.
Part of Ahl Al-Bayt
‘A’isha reported that Allah’s Prophet (PBUH) went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel’s hair that there came Hasan b. ‘Ali. He wrapped him under it, then came Husain and he wrapped him under it along with the other one (Hasan). Then came Fatima and he took her under it, then came ‘Ali and he also took him under it and then said:
Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household, and purify you (thorough purifying) (Sahih Muslim: 2424)
Allah has blessed this family so much that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has included them in their Ahl Al-Bayt. Now it is our duty that we respect their sacrifices and loves them as instructed by Prophet of Allah.